Un nouveau métier énergivore: “mineur” de blockchain.

La blockchain est un moyen nouveau de contrôler et de partager les informations. Cette technique assure transparence et sécurité, au prix d’une dépense d’énergie énorme dévolue à des millions d’ordinateurs. A ce festin énergétique, tout le monde peut participer, vous, oui, vous également. Profession: mineur de blockchain.

La blockchain peut se décrire en quatre points:

  1. c’est une technologie de stockage et de transmission d’informations, prenant la forme d’une base de données
  2. qui a la particularité d’être partagée simultanément avec tous ses utilisateurs et qui ne dépend d’aucun organe central
  3. a pour avantage d’être rapide et sécurisé
  4. dont le champ d’application a été mis en lumière par les cryptomonnaies (bitcoins et autres), mais qui s’applique dans tous les domaines où la sécurité est primordiale: assurance, logistique, énergie, industrie, santé, etc..

L’utilisation de la blockchain comporte de nombreux avantages, parmi lesquels :

  • la rapidité des transactions grâce au fait que la validation d’un bloc ne prend que quelques secondes à quelques minutes
  • la sécurité du système, qui est assuré par le fait que la validation est effectuée par un ensemble d’utilisateurs différents, qui ne se connaissent pas. Cela permet de se prémunir du risque de malveillance ou de détournement, puisque les nœuds surveillent le système et se contrôlent mutuellement
  • les gains de productivité et d’efficacité générés grâce au fait que la blockchain confie l’organisation des échanges à un protocole informatique, ce qui réduit mécaniquement les coûts de transaction ou de centralisation existant dans les systèmes traditionnels (frais financiers, frais de contrôle ou de certification, recours à des intermédiaires qui se rémunèrent pour leur service ; automatisation de certaines prestations, etc.).

Comme d’autres crypto-monnaies, le Bitcoin repose sur un système informatique qui a besoin d’une multitude de machines pour pouvoir y reposer sa blockchain, la sécuriser, et créer de la monnaie.

L’activité, plus communément appelée « minage », rémunère les différents parcs d’ordinateurs, que les mineurs soient en solitaire ou regroupés sous la forme de coopératives.

Ils sont rapidement devenus des dizaines de milliers à installer leurs processeurs pour vérifier des ensembles de transactions regroupées sous le terme de « bloc ». Pour le réseau Bitcoin, un bloc est constitué toutes les dix minutes dans le monde. Il est donc préférable d’avoir des machines puissantes pour être compétitif et pouvoir « miner » efficacement. En Chine, c’est dans la province de Sichuan, que plus de 60% de la puissance de calcul du réseau Bitcoin mondial est établie.

Cette disproportion chinoise s’explique très facilement. Pour pouvoir miner et gagner de l’argent, le coût de l’électricité est rapidement devenu une limite. Cette région chinoise, qui dispose d’un parc de barrages hydroélectriques conséquent et d’une production électrique suffisante, a rapidement saisi l’opportunité pour faire baisser les prix du kilowattheure et espérer attirer le plus de mineurs de Bitcoin.

Ailleurs, ils sont nombreux à avoir choisi les pays froids. Même si l’électricité peut y être plus chère, ces derniers ont pris le problème sous un autre angle : pour pouvoir réduire les factures, autant réduire celle de la climatisation. En raison de la puissance de calcul et donc de l’énergie utilisée par les ordinateurs, la chaleur dégagée peut rapidement devenir un coût pour s’en débarrasser

Se chauffer gratuitement grâce aux bitcoins …

Dans un récent article du Wall Street Journal, l’activité de minage de Bitcoin a pris une toute autre tournure avec le portrait de différents individus ayant fait le choix d’installer leurs machines chez eux. En plein hiver, ils racontaient tour à tour comment leur installation leur permettait de réduire la facture de chauffage, en remplaçant leurs cheminées, poêles, ou système électrique par la chaleur dégagée par les processeurs.

Le sujet n’est pas nouveau, loin de là. Depuis quelques années, ils sont des dizaines à nourrir les forums, des blogs, et publier des vidéos tutoriel pour expliquer comment leur facture d’électricité fut compensée par l’installation de quelques processeurs pour miner. Maintenant, en vue du processus de plus en plus complexe du réseau Bitcoin pour arriver à résoudre des blocs, le matériel nécessaire est de plus en plus puissant. Au minimum, un particulier devra s’équiper d’un ordinateur optimisé comme il l’est généralement trouvé sous la gamme “Asic”.

La plate-forme minière NVIDIA RTX 3060 Ti 

En France, l’idée d’allier chauffage avec une activité rémunératrice avait inspiré les entrepreneurs de la startup « Qarnot Computing ». Née en 2010, l’entreprise s’était lancée avec le but de « valoriser la chaleur informatique », en profitant par exemple des data center pour récupérer la chaleur générée et alimenter des habitations en chauffage. Avec l’arrivée du minage de Bitcoin, l’idée leur était venue, il y a trois ans, de lancer un chauffage 2 en 1 doté de deux cartes graphiques pour pouvoir à la fois chauffer une pièce et miner du Bitcoin.

Dans cet article, quelques indications ou témoignages sur la manière de s’insérer à titre personnel dans cette nouvelle activité rémunératrice.

Source: Presse-citron

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